Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today, and why has this advantage increased over time? The evidence is sketchy and we have only some answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, زيادة متابعين تويتر (feijisu4.com) however, we aren’t sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could be expected to live for longer than her younger brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

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The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in developed countries as compared to the present.

Let’s look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart plots the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be quite small however, it has increased significantly in the past century.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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